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Note that even content that conforms at the highest level (AAA) will not be accessible to individuals with all types, degrees, or combinations of disability, particularly in the cognitive language and learning areas. Authors are encouraged to consider the full range of techniques, including the advisory techniques, as well as to seek relevant advice about current best practice to ensure that Web content is accessible, as far as possible, to this community. Metadata may assist users in finding content most suitable for their needs.
This document has been reviewed by W3C members and other interestedparties and has been endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation.This specification is a Superseded Recommendation. A newerspecification exists that is recommended for new adoption in place ofthis specification. New implementations should follow the latest version of the HTML specification.A list of current W3C Recommendations and other technical documentscan be found at HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a simple markup language usedto create hypertext documents that are portable from one platform toanother. HTML documents are SGML documents with generic semantics thatare appropriate for representing information from a wide range ofapplications. This specification defines HTML version 3.2. HTML 3.2 aimsto capture recommended practice as of early '96 and as such to be usedas a replacement for HTML 2.0 (RFC 1866).ContentsIntroduction to HTML 3.2HTML as an SGML applicationThe Structure of HTML documentsThe HEAD element and its childrenThe BODY element and its childrenSample SGML Open Catalog for HTML 3.2SGML Declaration for HTML 3.2HTML 3.2 Document Type DefinitionCharacter Entities for ISO Latin-1Table of printable Latin-1 Character codesAcknowledgementsFurther Reading ...Introduction to HTML 3.2HTML 3.2 is W3C's specification for HTML, developed in early `96together with vendors including IBM, Microsoft, Netscape CommunicationsCorporation, Novell, SoftQuad, Spyglass, and Sun Microsystems. HTML 3.2adds widely deployed features such as tables, applets and text flowaround images, while providing full backwards compatibility with theexisting standard HTML 2.0. W3C is continuing to work with vendors on extensions foraccessibility features, multimedia objects, scripting, style sheets,layout, forms, math and internationalization. W3C plans on incorporatingthis work in further versions of HTML.HTML as an SGML ApplicationHTML 3.2 is an SGML application conforming to International StandardISO 8879 -- Standard Generalized Markup Language. As an SGMLapplication, the syntax of conforming HTML 3.2 documents is defined bythe combination of the SGML declaration and thedocument type definition (DTD). This specificationdefines the intended interpretation of HTML 3.2 elements, and placesfurther constraints on the permitted syntax which are otherwiseinexpressible in the DTD.The SGML rules for record boundaries are tricky. In particular, arecord end immediately following a start tag should be discarded. Forexample:Textis equivalent to:
Most elements that can appear in the document body fall into one oftwo groups: block level elements which cause paragraph breaks, and textlevel elements which don't. Common block level elements includeH1 to H6 (headers), P(paragraphs) LI (list items), and HR(horizontal rules). Common text level elements include EM,I, B and FONT (characteremphasis), A (hypertext links), IMG andAPPLET (embedded objects) and BR (linebreaks). Note that block elements generally act as containers for textlevel and other block level elements (excluding headings and addresselements), while text level elements can only contain other text levelelements. The exact model depends on the element. HeadingsH1, H2, H3, H4,H5 and H6 are used for document headings. Youalways need the start and end tags. H1 elements are moreimportant than H2 elements and so on, so thatH6 elements define the least important level of headings.More important headings are generally rendered in a larger font thanless important ones. Use the optional ALIGN attribute toset the text alignment within a heading, e.g. ... centered heading ... The default is left alignment, but this can be overridden by anenclosing DIV or CENTER element.ADDRESS The ADDRESS element requires start and end tags, andspecifies information such as authorship and contact details for thecurrent document. User agents should render the content withparagraph-breaks before and after. Note that the content is restrictedto paragraphs, plain text and text-like elements as defined by the %textentity.Example:Newsletter editorJ.R. Brown8723 Buena Vista, Smallville, CT 01234Tel: +1 (123) 456 7890Block elementsP paragraphsThe paragraph element requires a start tag, but the end tag canalways be omitted. Use the ALIGN attribute to set the textalignment within a paragraph, e.g. UL unordered listsThese require start and end tags, and contain one or moreLI elements representing individual list items.OL ordered (i.e. numbered) listsThese require start and end tags, and contain one or moreLI elements representing individual list items.DL definition listsThese require start and end tags and contain DTelements that give the terms, and DD elements that givecorresponding definitions.PRE preformatted textRequires start and end tags. These elements are rendered with amonospaced font and preserve layout defined by whitespace and linebreak characters.DIV document divisionsRequires start and end tags. It is used with the ALIGNattribute to set the text alignment of the block elements it contains.ALIGN can be one of LEFT, CENTERor RIGHT.CENTER text alignmentRequires start and end tags. It is used to center text linesenclosed by the CENTER element. See DIVfor a more general solution.BLOCKQUOTE quoted passageRequires start and end tags. It is used to enclose extendedquotations and is typically rendered with indented margins.FORM fill-out formsRequires start and end tags. This element is used to definea fill-out form for processing by HTTP servers. The attributesare ACTION, METHOD and ENCTYPE.Form elements can't be nested.ISINDEX primitive HTML formsNot a container, so the end tag is forbidden. This predatesFORM and is used for simple kinds of forms which have asingle text input field, implied by this element. A singleISINDEX can appear in the document head or body.HR horizontal rulesNot a container, so the end tag is forbidden. attributes areALIGN, NOSHADE, SIZE andWIDTH.TABLE can be nestedRequires start and end tags. Each table starts with an optionalCAPTION followed by one or more TR elementsdefining table rows. Each row has one or more cells defined byTH or TD elements. attributes forTABLE elements are WIDTH, BORDER,CELLSPACING and CELLPADDING.Paragraphs The P element is used to markup paragraphs. It is acontainer and requires a start tag. The end tag is optional as it canalways be inferred by the parser. User agents should place paragraphbreaks before and after P elements. The rendering is useragent dependent, but text is generally wrapped to fit the spaceavailable.Example: This is the first paragraph. This is the second paragraph.Paragraphs are usually rendered flush left with a ragged rightmargin. The ALIGN attribute can be used to explicitlyspecify the horizontal alignment:align=leftThe paragraph is rendered flush left.align=centerThe paragraph is centered.align=rightThe paragraph is rendered flush right.For example:This is a centered paragraph.and this is a flush right paragraph.The default is left alignment, but this can be overridden by anenclosing DIV orCENTER element.ListsList items can contain block and text level items, includingnested lists, although headings and address elements are excluded.This limitation is defined via the %flow entity.Unordered Lists Unordered lists take the form: ... first list item ... second list item ... The UL element is used for unordered lists. Both startand end tags are always needed. The LI element is used forindividual list items. The end tag for LI elements canalways be omitted. Note that LI elements can contain nestedlists. The COMPACT attribute can be used as a hint to theuser agent to render lists in a more compact style. The TYPE attribute can be used to set the bullet styleon UL and LI elements. The permitted valuesare "disc", "square" or "circle". The default generally depends on thelevel of nesting for lists.with with with This list was chosen to cater for the original bullet shapes used byMosaic in 1993.Ordered (i.e. numbered) Lists Ordered (i.e. numbered) lists take the form:
Definition lists take the form: term name term definition ... DT elements can only act as containers for text levelelements, while DD elements can hold block level elementsas well, excluding headings and address elements.For example:Term 1This is the definition of the first term.Term 2This is the definition of the second term.which could be rendered as:Term 1This is the definition of the first term.Term 2This is the definition of the second term.The COMPACT attribute can be used with theDL element as a hint to the user agent to renderlists in a more compact style.DIR and MENUThese elements have been part of HTML from the early days. They areintended for unordered lists similar to UL elements. Useragents are recommended to render DIR elements asmulticolumn directory lists, and MENU elements as singlecolumn menu lists. In practice, Mosaic and most other user agentshave ignored this advice and instead render DIR andMENU in an identical way to UL elements.Preformatted TextThe PRE element can be used to include preformattedtext. User agents render this in a fixed pitch font, preserving spacingassociated with white space characters such as space and newlinecharacters. Automatic word-wrap should be disabled withinPRE elements.Note that the SGML standard requires that the parserremove a newline immediately following the start tagor immediately preceding the end tag.PRE has the same content model as paragraphs,excluding images and elements that produce changes in font size,e.g. IMG, BIG, SMALL,SUB, SUP and FONT.A few user agents support the WIDTH attribute. Itprovides a hint to the user agent of the required width in characters.The user agent can use this to select an appropriate font size or toindent the content appropriately.Here is an example of a PRE element; a verse fromShelley (To a Skylark): Higher still and higher From the earth thou springest Like a cloud of fire; The blue deep thou wingest,And singing still dost soar, and soaring ever singest.which is rendered as: Higher still and higher From the earth thou springest Like a cloud of fire; The blue deep thou wingest,And singing still dost soar, and soaring ever singest.The horizontal tab character (encoded in Unicode, US ASCII andISO 8859-1 as decimal 9) should be interpreted as the smallestnon-zero number of spaces which will leave the number of charactersso far on the line as a multiple of 8. Its use is strongly discouragedsince it is common practice when editing to set the tab-spacing to othervalues, leading to misaligned documents.XMP, LISTING andPLAINTEXT]]>These are obsolete tags for preformatted text that predate theintroduction of PRE. User agents may support thesefor backwards compatibility. Authors should avoid using them in newdocuments!DIV and CENTERDIV elements can be used to structure HTML documents asa hierarchy of divisions. The ALIGN attribute can be usedto set the default horizontal alignment for elements within the contentof the DIV element. Its value is restricted toLEFT, CENTER or RIGHT, and isdefined in the same way as for the paragraph element.Note that because DIV is a block-like element it willterminate an open P element. Other than this, user agentsare not expected to render paragraph breaks before and afterDIV elements. CENTER is directly equivalentto DIV with ALIGN=CENTER. BothDIV and CENTER require start and end tags.CENTER was introduced by Netscape before they addedsupport for the HTML 3.0 DIV element. It is retained inHTML 3.2 on account of its widespread deployment.BLOCKQUOTEThis is used to enclose block quotations from other works.Both the start and end tags are required. It is often renderedindented, e.g.They went in single file, running like hounds on a strong scent,and an eager light was in their eyes. Nearly due west the broadswath of the marching Orcs tramped its ugly slot; the sweet grassof Rohan had been bruised and blackened as they passed.from "The Two Towers" by J.R.R. Tolkien.FORMThis is used to define an HTML form, and you can have more than one formin the same document. Both the start and end tags are required. For verysimple forms, you can also use the ISINDEXelement. Forms can contain a wide range of HTML markup including severalkinds of form fields such as single and multi-linetext fields, radio button groups, checkboxes, and menus. actionThis specifies a URL which is either used to post forms via email,e.g. action="mailto:email@example.com", or used to invoke aserver-side forms handler via HTTP, e.g.action=" -bin/register.pl"methodWhen the action attribute specifies an HTTP server, the methodattribute determines which HTTP method will be used to send the form'scontents to the server. It can be either GET orPOST, and defaults to GET. enctypeThis determines the mechanism used to encode the form's contents.It defaults to application/x-www-form-urlencoded.Further details on handling forms are given in RFC 1867.HR - horizontal rulesHorizontal rules may be used to indicate a change in topic.In a speech based user agent, the rule could be rendered as a pause.HR elements are not containers so the end tag is forbidden.The attributes are: ALIGN, NOSHADE,SIZE and WIDTH.alignThis determines whether the rule is placed at the left, centeror right of the space between the current left and right marginsfor align=left, align=center oralign=right respectively. By default, the rule is centered.noshadeThis attribute requests the user agent to render the rule in asolid color rather than as the traditional two colour "groove".sizeThis can be used to set the height of the rule in pixels.widthThis can be used to set the width of the rule inpixels (e.g. width=100) or as the percentage between thecurrent left and right margins (e.g. width="50%"). Thedefault is 100%. TablesHTML 3.2 includes a widely deployed subset of the specificationgiven in RFC 1942 and can be used tomarkup tabular material or for layout purposes. Note that the latterrole typically causes problems when rending to speech or to textonly user agents.Tables take the general form: ... table caption ... first cell second cell ... ... The attributes on TABLE are all optional. By default,the table is rendered without a surrounding border. The table isgenerally sized automatically to fit the contents, but you can also setthe table width using the WIDTH attribute.BORDER, CELLSPACING andCELLPADDING provide further control over the table'sappearence. Captions are rendered at the top or bottom of the tabledepending on the ALIGN attribute.Each table row is contained in a TR element, althoughthe end tag can always be omitted. Table cells are defined byTD elements for data and TH elements forheaders. Like TR, these are containers and can be givenwithout trailing end tags. TH and TD supportseveral attributes: ALIGN and VALIGN foraligning cell content, ROWSPAN and COLSPAN forcells which span more than one row or column. A cell can contain a widevariety of other block and text level elements including form fields andother tables.The TABLE element always requires both start and end tags.It supports the following attributes:alignThis takes one of the case insensitive values: LEFT,CENTER or RIGHT. It specifies the horizontalplacement of the table relative to the current left and right margins.It defaults to left alignment, but this can be overridden by anenclosing DIV orCENTER element.widthIn the absence of this attribute the table width is automaticallydetermined from the table contents. You can use the WIDTHattribute to set the table width to a fixed value in pixels (e.g.WIDTH=212) or as a percentage of the space between thecurrent left and right margins (e.g. WIDTH="80%").borderThis attribute can be used to specify the width of the outer borderaround the table to a given number of pixels (e.g.BORDER=4). The value can be set to zero to suppress theborder altogether. In the absence of this attribute the border should besuppressed. Note that some browsers also accept with the same semantics as BORDER=1.cellspacingIn traditional desktop publishing software, adjacent table cellsshare a common border. This is not the case in HTML. Each cell is givenits own border which is separated from the borders around neighboringcells. This separation can be set in pixels using theCELLSPACING attribute, (e.g. CELLSPACING=10).The same value also determines the separation between the table borderand the borders of the outermost cells.cellpaddingThis sets the padding in pixels between the border around each celland the cell's contents.The CAPTION element has one attribute ALIGNwhich can be either ALIGN=TOP or ALIGN=BOTTOM.This can be used to force the caption to be placed above the top orbelow the bottom of the table respectively. Most user agents default toplacing the caption above the table. CAPTION alwaysrequires both start and end tags. Captions are limited to plain text andtext-level elements as defined by the %text entity. Block level elementsare not permitted.The TR or table row element requires a start tag, butthe end tag can always be left out. TR acts as a containerfor table cells. It has two attributes:alignSets the default horizontal alignment of cell contents. It takesone of the case insensitive values: LEFT, CENTERor RIGHT and plays the same role as the ALIGNattribute on paragraph elements.valignThis can be used to set the default vertical alignment of cellcontents within each cell. It takes one of the case insensitive values:TOP, MIDDLE or BOTTOM to positionthe cell contents at the top, middle or bottom of the cell respectively.There are two elements for defining table cells. TH isused for header cells and TD for data cells. Thisdistinction allows user agents to render header and data cells indifferent fonts, and enables speech based browsers to do a better job.The start tags for TH and TD are always neededbut the end tags can be left out. Table cells can have the followingattributes:nowrapThe presence of this attribute disables automatic word wrapwithin the contents of this cell (e.g. ).This is equivalent to using the entity fornon-breaking spaces within the content of the cell.rowspanThis takes a positive integer value specifying the number ofrows spanned by this cell. It defaults to one.colspanThis takes a positive integer value specifying the number ofcolumns spanned by this cell. It defaults to one.align Specifies the default horizontal alignment of cellcontents, and overrides the ALIGN attribute on the tablerow. It takes the same values: LEFT, CENTERand RIGHT. If you don't specify an ALIGNattribute value on the cell, the default is left alignment for and center alignment for although you can override this with an ALIGN attribute onthe TR element.valign Specifies the default vertical alignment of cellcontents, overriding the VALIGN attribute on the table row.It takes the same values: TOP, MIDDLE andBOTTOM. If you don't specify a VALIGN attribute value onthe cell, the default is middle although you can override this with aVALIGN attribute on the TR element.widthSpecifies the suggested width for a cell content in pixelsexcluding the cell padding. This value will normally beused except when it conflicts with the width requirementsfor other cells in the same column.heightSpecifies the suggested height for a cell content in pixelsexcluding the cell padding. This value will normally beused except when it conflicts with the height requirementsfor other cells in the same row.Tables are commonly rendered in bas-relief, raised up with the outerborder as a bevel, and individual cells inset into this raised surface.Borders around individual cells are only drawn if the cell has explicitcontent. White space doesn't count for this purpose with the exceptionof .The algorithms used to automatically size tables should takeinto account the minimum and maximum width requirements for eachcell. This is used to determine the minimum and maximum widthrequirements for each column and hence for the table itself.Cells spanning more than one column contribute to thewidths of each of the columns spanned. One approach is to evenlyapportion the cell's minimum and maximum width between thesecolumns, another is to weight the apportioning according to thecontributions from cells that don't span multiple columns.For some user agents it may be necessary or desirable to breaktext lines within words. In such cases a visual indication that thishas occurred is advised.The minimum and maximum width of nested tables contribute to theminimum and maximum width of the cell in which they occur. Once thewidth requirements are known for the top level table, the column widthsfor that table can be assigned. This allows the widths of nested tablesto be assigned and hence in turn the column widths of such tables.If practical, all columns should be assigned at least their minimumwidths. It is suggested that any surplus space is then shared outproportional to the difference between the minimum and maximum widthrequirements of each column.Note that pixel values for width and height refer to screen pixels, andshould be multiplied by an appropriate factor when rendering to very highresolution devices such as laser printers. For instance if a user agent hasa display with 75 pixels per inch and is rendering to a laser printer with600 dots per inch, then the pixel values given in HTML attributes should bemultiplied by a factor of 8. Text level elementsThese don't cause paragraph breaks. Text level elementsthat define character styles can generally be nested. They cancontain other text level elements but not block level elements.Font style elementsPhrase elementsForm FieldsThe A (anchor) elementIMG - inline imagesAPPLET (Java Applets)FONT elementsBASEFONT elementsBR - line breaksMAP - client-side image mapsFont style elementsThese all require start and end tags, e.g. This has some bold text.Text level elements must be properly nested - the followingis in error: This has some bold and italic text.User agents should do their best to respect nested emphasis, e.g. This has some bold and italic text.Where the available fonts are restricted or for speech output, alternativemeans should be used for rendering differences in emphasis.TT teletype or monospaced textI italic text styleB bold text styleU underlined text styleSTRIKE strike-through text styleBIG places text in a large fontSMALL places text in a small fontSUB places text in subscript styleSUP places text in superscript styleNote: future revisions to HTML may be phase out STRIKEin favor of the more concise "S" tag from HTML 3.0.Phrase ElementsThese all require start and end tags, e.g. This has some emphasized text.EM basic emphasis typically rendered in an italic fontSTRONG strong emphasis typically rendered in a bold fontDFN defining instance of the enclosed termCODE used for extracts from program codeSAMP used for sample output from programs, and scripts etc.KBD used for text to be typed by the userVAR used for variables or arguments to commandsCITE used for citations or references to other sourcesForm fieldsINPUT,SELECT andTEXTAREA are only allowed withinFORM elements. INPUT canbe used for a variety of form fields including single line text fields,password fields, checkboxes, radio buttons, submit and reset buttons,hidden fields, file upload, and image buttons.SELECT elements are used for single ormultiple choice menus. TEXTAREAelements are used to define multi-line text fields. The content of theelement is used to initialize the field.INPUT text fields, radio buttons, check boxes, ...INPUT elements are not containers and so the end tag isforbidden.typeUsed to set the type of input field: 2b1af7f3a8